Our Book | Traben-Trarbach, Our Location | Live Cam..

| HOME | Site Map | Sky Map | The Book | England | Wales | Scotland | Ireland | France | Germany | Benelux | Italy Corsica Malta Sardinia | Switzerland & Austria | Spain Portugal | Scandinavia | The Baltic | Russia | Eastern Europe | Central Asia | Near East | Egypt & Africa | Greece | Turkey | USA & Canada | Mexico & Mesoamerica | South America | New Zealand & Oceania | China | Japan | Korea | Southeast Asia | India & Sri Lanka | Mercator | Kammrath | Cult of Horus | Nebra | Tanum | Osnabrueck | Oesterholz | Externsteine | Stars Stones and Scholars |

Megalithic Sites
Index - The Megaliths of the World as Astronomy & Land Survey System - Index
Megalithic Links
Google


WWW MEGALITHS.NET

andis smart has stonehenge
Martha & Andis Stonehenge 2005

the greater family
The Megalithic Family 2006

Relevant Publications
(ancient cultures & astronomy)

| Cult of Horus | Nebra Sky Disk |
| Tanum | Osnabrueck |
| Oesterholz | Externsteine |
| Stars Stones and Scholars |
| All Publications |

Megalithic Sites
(main links to deciphered sites)

Site Map with clickable world map |
England | Wales | Scotland | Ireland |
Belgium | Netherlands | Luxembourg |
France | Channel Islands | Spain | Portugal |
Germany | Switzerland | Austria |
Malta | Italy | Corsica | Sardinia |
The Baltic (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) |
Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Faroe Islands, Greenland) |
Greece | Turkey | Near East |
Egypt (Pharaonic Civilization) & Africa |
Russia | East. Europe | Central Asia |
South Asia (incl. India, Sri Lanka) |
China | Japan | Korea | SE Asia |
Australia | New Zealand | Oceania |
USA & Canada |
Mexico & Central America |
South America | Easter Island |


kaulins scotland
CLAVA CAIRNS
Andis Kaulins Scotland 2001
At Balnuaran of Clava


kaulins malta
MALTA TEMPLES
Andis Kaulins in Malta 1988
Malta Temples, at Tarxien



Waylands Smithy
WAYLAND's SMITHY
Andis Kaulins in 2000

kaulins england
In The Cotswolds
Andis Kaulins England 2000

Official Sites
Links & Services

We are website members of the
UNESCO World Heritage Centre
(United Nations)

and we urge you to join too.
Please note the UNESCO
Astronomy
and World Heritage Initiative


(websites alphabetically)
American Astronomical Society
Arts & Humanities
Research Council

BLM Volunteers
Bradshaw Foundation
Brittany (Bretagne)
Cahokia Mounds
Canadian Heritage
Carnac Official Site
Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc Cave
Compendium of Cultural Policies
and Trends in Europe

Current Archaeology
English Heritage
Environment and Heritage
Service (Northern Ireland)

European Astronomical Society
European Culture Portal
European Heritage Network
European Institute for Comparative
Cultural Research (ERICarts)

EuroPreArt
(European Prehistoric Art)

Flemish Funds-in-Trust
France-UNESCO
Cooperation Agreement

Geograph British Isles
Gnosis Archive
Google Earth
Heritage Malta
Historic Monuments
Council (Northern Ireland)

Information Technology
and Heritage Initiative

International Astronomical Union
International Council on
Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)

Italian Funds-in-Trust
Japanese Funds-in-Trust
Jeffers Petroglyphs
Kanayama Megaliths Japan
Kents Cavern
Kulturportal Deutschland
Lascaux Cave
Malta Temples
OTS Foundation

Metropolitan Museum of Art
Miami Circle
MONUM (France)
Multimap
NASA
NASA Historical Solar Eclipses
National Board
of Antiquities (Finland)

National GPS Network (GB)
N. Heritage P. (Belgium-Brussels)
N. Heritage P.
(Belgium-Flemish region)

N. Heritage P. (Bulgaria)
N. Heritage P. (Croatia)
N. Heritage P. (Cyprus)
N. Heritage P. (Estonia)
N. Heritage P. (Finland)
N. Heritage P. (Georgia-Caucasus))
N. Heritage P. (Germany)
N. Heritage P. (Greece)
N. Heritage P. (Hungary)
N. Heritage P. (Ireland)
N. Heritage P. (Latvia)
N. Heritage P. (Lithuania)
N. Heritage P. (Luxemburg)
N. Heritage P. (Norway)
N. Heritage P. (Poland)
N. Heritage P. (Portugal)
N. Heritage P. (Romania)
N. Heritage P. (Slovakia)
N. Heritage P. (Slovenia)
N. Heritage P. (Spain)
N. Heritage P. (Macedonia)
N. Heritage P. (UK)
National Research
Council Canada

National Trust
(England, Wales, N. Ireland)

National Trust for Scotland
Netherlands
Funds-in-Trust (NFiT)

Newark Ohio Earthworks
New England Antiquities
Research Assoc.

NPS Volunteers-in-Parks
Ordnance Survey UK
Ouroboros Trust
Passport in Time
Rollright Trust
Pech Merle
RCAHMS
RCAHMW
Sky and Telescope
Smithsonian Institution (USA)
RAA
Sweden's Historical Sites

UNESCO World Heritage
Centre (United Nations)

US Bureau of Land Management
US Forest Service
US National Park Service

andis kaulins glasgow
Hydra - See the figure inside?

AVEBURY 7 HYDRA STONE

andis kaulins glasgow
Andis Kaulins in Glasgow
A modern monolith

LION OF GLASGOW

Dear Reader,

This is the home index page of Megaliths.net. There is also a
Site Map with clickable world map of megalithic locations and a book about the megaliths (see right column). See also our LexiLine Newsletter/Group (currently nearly 500 members) and our founded Archaeology Travel Photos group at Flickr (currently over 1300 members and over 18000 photographs). See also our founded Megalithic Sites of the World at Flickr (currently over 300 members and ca. 2000 photos). We also have started several related blogs such as Megalithic World, Stonehenge Pundit, Megaliths, Figures in Stone, Stars Stones and Scholars, and the Megalithic Wiki.

SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF MEGALITHIC and PETROGLYPHIC SITES AS ASTRONOMY

Megaliths.net is a systematic graphic-supported analysis of megaliths and megalithic sites around the world which shows that ancient megalithic sites are land survey sites located by prehistoric astronomy. As observed by Alice Cunningham Fletcher (Alice C. Fletcher) in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist, there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens. We apply this principle, for example, to the Malta Temples with remarkable results. We suggest that many megaliths and megalithic sites served as hermetic boundary stones and/or served as landmarks sighted (and sited) by astronomy. Included here are also petroglyphs (ancient rock drawing sites) which we think are often astronomically oriented (e.g. Tanum, Sweden or Peterborough, Canada).

An Illustrated Photograph of Stonehenge


stonehenge view from the heel stone

Systematic analysis includes an understanding of exactly what one is looking at. Our 2005 photograph of Stonehenge above (here reduced in size - see larger photograph here) was taken from the Heel Stone along the main axis of Stonehenge, known as the Avenue, looking from the northeast to the southwest on Salisbury Plain. We combine that photo with our illustration of the exact corresponding viewing position at Stonehenge (looking from bottom to top). We developed the above visually explanatory image because books and other online websites on Stonehenge do not provide satisfactory explanation of what one is looking at. Numerous megalithic sites are long on hype and short on science, and this includes the websites of mainstream archaeologists.

STONEHENGE AND THE STONEHENGE BARROWS ARE ONE EXAMPLE OF OUR ANALYSIS

Megalithic sites such as Stonehenge, which according to our research is undeniably an astronomical lunisolar calculator, also are presented in our pages, but we go beyond previous research. For example, in our study of Stonehenge astronomy we provide new analysis of the surrounding Stonehenge Barrows, important astronomical landmarks which have been neglected by other researchers. Our analysis shows unequivocally that these barrows served initially as a hermetic mirror-image sky map of the stars. The Stonehenge Barrows are probative evidence that the classic Stonehenge circle of sarsens and trilithons was in fact an ancient astronomical clock and eclipse calculator.

But Stonehenge is an exception in concentrating on solar and lunar alignments. Traditional archaeoastronomical research is often far off the mark in constantly fixing only on solar and lunar alignments at other megalithic sites, as if every megalithic culture were trying to erect gigantic stone sundials in their back yard - for what possible reason (?). Rather, our research shows to a great deal of certainty, that most megalithic sites are oriented TO THE STARS. By neglecting the stars, traditional astronomers and archaeoastronmers have failed to recognize the main purpose of the megaliths as stellar-oriented survey instruments.


LINGUISTIC EVIDENCE PROVIDES US WITH ADDITIONAL CLUES

We try to examine ALL available evidence in our research. Even linguistic evidence is useful. For example, the name Stonehenge itself, as noted by William H. Long in his 19th century book, Stonehenge and it Barrows - which is still the best book available on the history of Stonehenge (now available at Amazon) - may be a term of Germanic origin as haengende Steine or Steinhang meaning "suspended stones". Locally, Stonehenge was allegedly called nawt by the Welsh, meaning "sanctuary", but we think that nawt originally meant node (Welsh noad) viz. "knot"- of the Sun and the Moon, so that Stonehenge was by name "an eclipse calculator". The Irish megalithic site of Knowth may be similarly named as the "knot" viz. "ankh" of heaven at heaven's center.

STONEHENGE SHOWS THAT LOCATIONS OF MEGALITHIC SITES MAY NOT BE CHANCE

The location of megalithic sites is of great importance, which few researchers have understood. Gerald S. Hawkins in Stonehenge Decoded (p. 154) is a happy exception as he writes as follows about the unique location of Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain:

"
Newham and Charriere of France ... commented on the very noteworthy circumstance that the latitude of Stonehenge is practically optimum for sun-moon rectangular alignment.... [I]n the northern hemisphere there is only one latitude for which, at their extreme declinations, the sun and the moon azimuths are separated by 900. Stonehenge is within a few miles of that latitude."

This confirms that Stonehenge may have been named anciently as the node of solar and lunar rectangular alignments, especially for eclipse prediction.

A strong precedent supporting our hermetic astronomical view of the ancient megalithic world is the 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist of an article by Alice C. Fletcher describing the hermetic astronomical system of the Pawnee in Nebraska, who geographically located their villages according to the stars in the heavens.

This practice reflects something which the ancients called hermetics, retained in modern times in the phrase: "as above, so below". Our research indicates that the ancients meant that phrase literally, as they used the heaven of stars above as the model for their earthly map on the ground below. We shall suggest that the same basic system as used by the Pawnee was not only used at Stonehenge and throughout Ancient England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, but was also used globally by ancient man in prehistoric days, for example, at megalithic sites such as the Malta Temples, each of which, as we have discovered, represents a star group.

The use of the hermetic principle is documented in Pharaonic Egypt as well. John Brock observes that land survey in ancient Egypt dates back to the earliest days of that ancient civilization and that ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs "even refer to setting boundary stelae 'like the sky' ". Obviously, this is evidence that the sky was used as a model for land survey. The heaven of stars served as the map model for land survey on earth. That is the hermetic principle.

WAYLAND'S SMITHY, ENGLAND

Our photograph and accompanying drawing below show our interpretation of the astronomical significance of the megaliths at Wayland's Smithy in England. Compare the two.

WAYLAND'S SMITHY, ENGLAND

Wayland's Smithy Photo

Wayland's Smithy NEW Decipherment in the Year 2008 (below)

Wayland's Smithy Decipherment New 2008

The stars represented by Wayland's Smithy are from left to right: Taurus, Auriga, Perseus,
Pleiades, Triangulum, Aries, Pegasus (Great Square - or Circle),
Cassiopeia, Cepheus and Lacerta.

Wayland's Smithy OLD Decipherment (below) in the Year 2002 (below)

Wayland's Smithy as Andromeda and Pegasus

Wayland's Smithy was the first megalithic site that we deciphered after finding cupmarks at Balnuaran of Clava (see those cupmarks at the upper right column of this page) which convinced us that that megalithic sites were astronomical in nature. Since then we have deciphered hundreds of megalithic sites around the world and due to that experience we can see now, six years later, that our initial decipherment of Wayland's Smithy must be revised as above. When one looks now, the stars of Perseus are clear, but it was not so clear in the pioneering stages. Interesting is also the middle small stone, which originally could have been upright and not flat on its side as now. The bird as Auriga (Capella is the head and the two stars below it the feet) and Taurus as a fish also become clear as the bird is catching the fish, one above the Milky Way and one below. Cepheus and Cassiopeia appear as separate star groups and Pegasus is marked by the large circle below the hills of Andromeda. The interpretation of Lacerta, the Lizard, remains unchanged, and it is a lizard which was originally pictured at the Uffington White Horse and not a horse, whose dimensions are far different. Wayland's Smithy may be an anglification of Gaelic jiolgan atchimagh viz. jiolgan leaghyr (modern dinosaur, lizard) with jiolgan being rendered as Wayland (older spelling Weland with a long e) and atchimagh as Smithy.

The lessons here are: 1) megalithic interpretations can change and indeed must be changed to fit improved observations and data, and 2) an obvious explanation can be overlooked if one is following a given line of thought too strictly. Our first interpretation was useful to us then, giving us a hermetic benchmark astronomical location in England, but the interpretation is now improved.

TANUM PETROGLYPHS, SWEDEN (our decipherment)

TANUM ROCK DRAWING LOCATIONS, SWEDEN

Tanum deciphered as astronomy

The rock drawing locations at Tanum, Sweden represent a sky map of the stars

Decipherment or Explanation?

We call our presentation "the decipherment of the megaliths". The term "explanation" might be a better, if also less effective word. You can access our pages through the geographic links in the left column or at the bottom of this text or at the top of this page. If you prefer the printed word, you also have the option to buy our book on the megaliths at Stars Stones and Scholars: The Decipherment of the Megaliths (see Science Book Review and Amazon for reviews).

The text material below is intended as an introduction to materials on this website. We think that your understanding of our pages will be increased if you continue reading this page, but that is up to you. You can always come back to this page later through the "home" link above.

Megaliths and Megalithic Sites are a Source of Controversy

The world's megalithic sites are a source of controversial mystery to science. No mainstream discipline has ever engaged in a systematic study of the world's megalithic sites. Quite the contrary, pioneer scholars such as the late Gerald S. Hawkins, who wrote the groundbreaking Stonehenge Decoded, have often been ignored by the establishment. Hawkins himself related the tale of a British government official who simply rejected his findings without reading them by stating that "the ancient Britons couldn't have been as clever as all that". In fact, the megalith builders are still more or less an "unknown" quantity, an uncertainty which leads most archaeologists and most mainstream scholars to avoid megalithic study altogether.

But how can this worldwide heritage be ignored and ancient history be accurately written without accounting for megaliths and megalithic sites? Who erected them, and why? Mainstream science does not know. We claim to have a part of the answer.

Megaliths and Megalithic Sites as Boundaries and Landmarks

There is in fact compelling evidence that many megaliths served as ancient landmarks and boundary stones which were sighted (and sited) by astronomy. Indeed, the much maligned historical so-called Hermetic tradition clearly points to the origins of megalithic sites in land survey. For example, Gnosis.org writes about the Hermetic tradition as follows:

"The name Hermes appears to have originated in the word for "stone heap." Probably since prehistoric times there existed in Crete and in other Greek regions a custom of erecting a herma or hermaion consisting of an upright stone surrounded at its base by a heap of smaller stones. Such monuments were used to serve as boundaries or as landmarks for wayfarers."

This hermetic tradition contradicts the prevailing but unsupportable mainstream view that the original purpose of megalithic sites was to serve as tombs, for which there is little probative evidence. Rather, we know that the ancients often transported huge stones many miles to erect them at a particular location far removed from their origin. Obviously, these sites were not tombs, as it would have been far simpler to transport the deceased to the area of rock quarries, rather than vice versa. Obviously, the sites chosen for megaliths had a special significance.

If the original Neolithic megaliths and megalithic sites were boundaries and landmarks, how were the locations selected and surveyed?

One of the cardinal precepts of the Hermetic tradition is "As above, so below". In days before writing and the invention of printed maps, one could not simply go down to the local store and buy travel maps, and yet, people had to be able to get around on land and to navigate by sea. How did they do it? How did they know where they were?

We claim, and all available evidence points in this direction, that the ancients took a "fixed known map" - this was the map of the heaven of stars - and projected that map onto the Earth - as a model for land survey. Anyone having knowledge of the heavenly stars could thus find his way around on Earth by means of the megaliths, which served both as boundaries and landmarks, sighted (and sited) by astronomy.

The Hermetic System of the Pawnee in Nebraska (Alice C. Fletcher)

As already noted above, the 1902 American Anthropologist (cached here and here) published an article by Alice C. Fletcher titled Star Cult Among the Pawnee-A Preliminary Report, American Anthropologist, October-December, 1902 Vol.4(4):730-736 and describing the hermetic astronomical system of the Pawnee in Nebraska, whose villages and their respective geographical locations were represented by stars in the heavens. As part of the Anthropology Journal Archive Project, Ralph Bachli of Boston University  (Parker Shipton) wrote about that article as follows (we have added emphasis in bold face type):

"
Alice Fletcher documents the astrological symbols of an American Indian culture....  She notes the historical diffusion of beliefs and rituals throughout American trade and pilgrimage routes.  Fletcher focuses on the Pawnee perception of the stars and its effects on village planning and indigenous mythology.

Up until the late nineteenth century the Pawnee inhabited the Platte River in what is now the Midwestern state of Nebraska.... Fletcher investigates the Skidi Pawnee clan who portray astrological themes in village construction. Skidi comprise five functioning villages, each containing ritual icons for the worship of certain constellations.  Each village took on characteristics of certain star systems, and ceremonies were initiated to celebrate the astronomical rhythm of favorite constellations. The geographic location of five Skidi villages in relation to one another corresponded respectively to the constellations to which they were symbolically attached.... Fletcher explains how the earth lodge abodes that the Pawnee build are based on constellation patterns.... The Pawnee transform observation of stellar patterns into village planning, hut construction, and religion. These tribes had an intensive ritual life that took place at shrines dedicated to the night sky over the flatlands.
"

The Megaliths are a Hermetic System of Land Survey by the Stars

That in a nutshell, corresponds pretty well to the megalithic system we have discovered. As we show e.g. in our book on the megaliths, each temple of Malta has a form which corresponds to a different stellar constellation, and all of the temples of Malta fit into a cohesive astronomical geodetic system. This, we allege, was an ancient survey system globally applied.

For example, Gaelic tradition states that heavenly locations had earthly counterparts, although this knowledge is now submerged in Gaelic myth and is no longer directly accessible. The only way left for us to reconstruct such ancient hermetic systems is to examine the megalithic sites themselves and to research if these sites are systematically located by the stars.

Megaliths.net thus presents text materials, photographs and drawings relating to megaliths and megalithic sites - broadly defined to include what are mainly Neolithic (Stone Age) standing stones, menhirs, dolmens, cairns, quoits, tumuli, barrows, earthworks, dykes, henges, circles, etc. Prehistoric cave paintings and rock drawings (rock art) are also included in the analysis as precursors of megalithic art. According to our research, the original forms of this type of art are almost ALL astronomical in nature. The countries and regions of the world that we examine are:

Scotland, England and Wales, Ireland, France, Germany, Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg), Spain and Portugal (Iberia), Italy together with Corsica, Sardinia and Malta, the Baltic (Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia), Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland), Western Europe for countries not specifically listed above (such as Austria and Switzerland), Russia, Eastern Europe, Azerbaijan, Caucasus, North America (United States, Canada), Mesoamerica (Central America), South America, Oceania (including Polynesia, Micronesia, and New Zealand) and Australia, Ancient Greece (including Mediterranean islands such as Crete and Rhodes), Anatolia (Turkey), the Ancient Near East (Mesopotamia, Fertile Crescent, the Holy Land, Israel, Arabia, Persia, Assyria, Sumer, Akkad, lands of the Hittites), Africa and Egypt including Pharaonic Civilization, China, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia (including Thailand), India and Sri Lanka, formerly Ceylon.


MEGALITHIC SITES ARE ASTRONOMY AND GEODETICS

This is a summary of our findings.

Megaliths ("giant standing stones", menhirs) and related constructions such as cairns and dolmens (chambers of stone), tumuli and barrows (ancient earthworks) and henges and circles were built by ancient man for purposes of Astronomy and Geodetics.

Stated simply, stars were used to measure the Earth and vice versa. This human achievement dates to the Neolithic Period (Stone Age), long before such technology was thought possible by modern scholars. Indeed, the observational astronomical tradition upon which the megaliths are based is likely to be many thousands of years older than the megaliths themselves.

As discovered by Andis Kaulins, Neolithic megalithic sites are astronomy in a cohesive broadly based geodetic survey system. Megalithic sites marked geographic land borders as triangulated by astronomy, e.g. in Scotland, England and Wales, and Ireland, much as the kudurri (border stones) of Mesopotamia. In modern times, triangulation cornerstones have been put underground. In ancient days, these stones were erected on the surface - and there most of them have remained to this day. We can relate to this quite well by experience, having worked as a student out in the field for a summer for the Nebraska State Surveyor's Office.


MEGALITHIC SITES IN SCOTLAND

All Neolithic sites in Scotland listed in the Ordnance Survey map of Ancient Britain (ISBN 0-319-29028-X) form a planisphere (sky map) of the northern and southern heavens with a center at BALNUARAN of CLAVA, where BAL surely means POLE, while NUARAN surely was an ancient name for the "River of Light" (Heaven) as in Hebrew NEHAR DI NUR and Arabic NAHR. See Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, Dover (ISBN 0-486-21079-0). See my review of that book. The decipherment began at Clava.

MEGALITHIC SITES IN ANCIENT BRITAIN : ENGLAND and WALES

All Neolithic sites in England marked on the Ordnance Survey map of Ancient Britain, including megaliths, quoits, tumuli and barrows form a map projection of the stars of the northern and southern heavens, with the center of the system at the Herefordshire Beacon and Midsummer Hill. Sites later than the Neolithic period show that the ancients adjusted for precession. The site called The Hurlers in Cornwall is a location at which precession was calculated in Ancient Britain.

MEGALITHIC SITES IN ANCIENT IRELAND

Megaliths and megalithic sites in Ireland were selected and organized by region. The counties of modern Ireland and Northern Ireland - to the degree they approximate ancient regional boundaries - correspond to the stellar constellations of the heavens.

MEGALITHIC STANDING STONES ARE CARVED WITH FIGURES

Standing stones, menhirs, tumuli, barrows, cairns, quoits, dolmens, and selected swallets and caves mark the stars of the heavens in Ancient Britain. Many megaliths are carved with reliefs of interlocking figures (smaller figures drawn within larger figures) which identify the stars to which stones are oriented (this Neolithic artistic style compares to modern works of M.C. Escher). Although our decipherment formally "began" at Balnuaran of Clava in Scotland through the cupmarked stones at that site, the megaliths at Wayland's Smithy e.g. were among the first stones solved, based on the carved (sculpted) shape of the stones themselves as well as through carvings on the stones and holes in the stones marking stars. This paved the way for the rest of the megaliths and for carvings found on ceremonial objects placed in swallets or hewn on the walls of caves.

Tumuli and barrows are arranged in groups to mark certain star clusters, e.g. the Knowlton Rings show Taurus and the Hyades. Winterbourne Stoke shows the stars of the Pleiades. In some cases, the apparently man-worked shape of cave rooms also identifies the stellar constellations or geodetic locations. Various earthworks even plan and record the astronomical and geodetic work, e.g. west of Torquay (Torbay) and east of Lewes, England.

MEGALITHS HAVE CUPMARKS OR INDENTATIONS REPRESENTING STARS

Many standing stones have cupmarks or less formal indentations or holes on them marking the stars or stellar constellations which they represent. Additional markings on some stones identify parameters such as ecliptic, celestial equator, circle of precession, center of heaven (north ecliptic pole, south ecliptic pole), north pole star, south pole star, cord of the fish, Milky Way and solstice and equinox points.

Weathering has of course made it harder to identify holes and figures - but erosive processes also work on the contours of reliefs, holes and cupmarks, so that these in many cases do not disappear entirely, since they weather too and in some cases maintain their general near-original shape. Using modern graphics software and the numerous tools available for microscopic analysis of photographs, most of these sculpted figures, indentations and markings on megaliths, cairns, stones and dolmens can be reconstructed, e.g. by redrawing only the heaviest visible lines or marks on the stones, or adjusting the brightness, color and contrast of pictures. This detective work allows the stars intended by the ancients to be identified in many cases.

MEGALITHS AND SITES ARE INTENTIONALLY SHAPED

Many cairns or quoits are in the shape of the star groups they represent. The shape of many stones shows the appropriate part of the heavens explicitly. Ancient earthworks also served astronomical purposes. Tumuli and barrows mark specific stars or nebulae. A cursus at a site may, e.g., mark the Milky Way. Earthwork mounds may form the shape of a celestial object, e.g. the Large Magellanic Cloud. The ancients - as shown on Megaliths.net - knew the southern skies and left us evidence carved in stone that they traveled as far as e.g. Africa, where we still find megaliths in the Central African Republic, megaliths now easily explained by geodetic survey and astronomy. That some ancient seafarers knew the southern heavens is recorded in an ancient legend from Sri Lanka, as found In Richard Hinckley Allen's book, Star Names. Quoting from my Ancient World Blog:

"Richard Hinckley Allen in his book, Star Names, Dover Publications, N.Y. 1997, reports of ancient legends that the southern stars were initially created by ancient seafarers to approximate the shape of Northern constellations in similar positions. Allen writes (p. 436) as follows:

"Before the observations of the navigators of the 15th and 16th centuries the singular belief prevailed that the southern heavens contained a constellation near the pole similar to our Bear or Wain; indeed it is said to have been represented on an early map or globe. Manilus wrote:

'The lower Pole resemblance bears
To this Above, and shines with equal stars;
With Bears averse, round which the Draco twines;'

and Al Biruni repeated the Sanskrit legend that at one time in the history of the Creation an attempt was made by Visvamitra to form a southern heavenly home for the body of the dead king, the pious Somadatta; and this work was not abandoned till a southern pole and another Bear had been located in positions corresponding to the northern, this pole passing through the island Lunka, or Vadavamukha (Ceylon). The Anglo-Saxon Manual made distinct mention of this duplicate constellation 'which we can never see.'...

And, quoting from Francisco Lopes of 1552: [our comment: the spelling is original!]


'Abowt the poynt of the Southe or pole Antartike, they sawe a lyttle whyte cloude and foure stars lyke unto a crosse with three other joynynge thereunto, which resemble oure Septentrion, and are judged to bee the signes or tokens of the south exeltree of heaven.'

What is referred to here is not known, for although the figure represented is that of the Southern Cross this constellation always is upright when on the meridian, and, as the observation was made in latitude 14° or 15°, its base star was plainly visible."

MEGALITHIC SITES MARK REGIONAL BORDERS

Megalithic boundaries mark both small and large geographic areas. For example, Counties in Scotland still retain elements of the approximate size, shape, and location of their comparable stellar constellations, located on earth by megaliths. Perthshire in Scotland e.g. retains the name PERSeus in PERTH. Megalithic sites in Perthshire such as Fowlis Wester represent stars in Perseus. The relative size and shape of Perthshire corresponds to the comparable constellation. Other counties are similar, though of course changed somewhat over the millennia. The graphic below shows the author at Fowlis Wester in the year 2001. The lines and dots have been added to the photo (not to the megalith) by the author to show how the stars of Perseus are represented by cupmarks on the stone, which shows the side profile, back and shoulder of a woman who has turned her head toward the viewer. The triangle of three large points to the left below Perseus of course marks the stars of Taurus. The shoulder marks the stars of the Pleiades for the reason that e.g. Plecs means "shoulder" in Indo-European language, e.g. Latvian. This analysis is supported for Fowlis Wester by Manx Gaelic Yn Whing as the name for Perseus, where whing in Manx Gaelic means "span, arm".  See ceantar.org.

Andis Kaulins at the Fowlis Wester Megalith

Fowlis Wester Scotland as Perseus

Fowlis Wester Decipherment

Fowlis Wester Deciphered


MEGALITHIC SITES MARK NATIONAL BORDERS

Megalithic sites also involve geodetic survey by astronomy of regions on a larger scale, showing e.g. that the ancient border between Scotland and England was at Eridanus (Hadrian), represented by the River Tyne (Eri-Danus, with Danus = Tyne, the watershed between Scotland and England) and ending at New Castle ("new earthwork"). The ancients made separate measurements for England (Wales included), Scotland and Ireland, each with its own center of heaven for survey. The Channel Islands are also represented.

On the European continent, each region had their own geodetic survey. In Germany astronomical works of the Magdalenians (later called Franks or Franken), were passed down as the legendary Ring of the Nibelungen, living on the Neckar (Nahr). Tumuli (Hügelgräber), megaliths throughout Germany, and the Felsenmeer between Frankfurt and Heidelberg are clearly ancient astronomical geodetic markers. The Externsteine were a center of astronomical activity. The Gollenstein (Gollen Stone) at Blieskastel in Germany near Saarbrücken is the largest megalith in Middle Europe (7.6 meters high of which 6.6 meters are above the ground). As we have discovered, this megalith represents Hydra, the "longest" stellar constellation. Megaliths extend outward from the Gollen Stone and these megaliths surely marked the ancient border to France.

In France, the cave paintings, and the stones at Carnac and elsewhere are ALL astronomical geodetic monuments. Mediterranean islands also have megaliths, such as the stone Sa Perda Pinta from Boeli [pole] near Mamoiada which we find marked a center of heaven for Sardinia in ancient days (so our discovery).

MEGALITHIC SITES MARK THE START OF THE CALENDAR

Geographic locations of megaliths were intentionally oriented to the stars and to objects of the heavens in a given era. For Neolithic sites, the cardinal date seems to be either the Summer or Winter Solstice in 3117 BC (-3116 by astronomy) (as calculated by Starry Night Pro, ISBN 1-894395-01-8). Our initial view was that the Winter Solstice in 3117 BC was marked by a solar eclipse with Mars and Saturn at Spica in Virgo, and the rest of the visible planets at the Winter Solstice point. This unique phenomenon would have been well suited to start the first long-term human calendar - retained in e.g. Hindu and Maya calendration. However, due to the problems involved in calculating Delta T (the change in the rate of the spin of the earth over the millennia) as well as similar problems in determining the lunar acceleration parameter, solar eclipse data in ancient eras is subject to great dispute, and we are in the process of preparing a special page on ancient solar eclipses.

SAVING AND MAINTAINING THE MEGALITHIC SITES

Regrettably, many megalithic sites have been destroyed by people who know no better and such ancient sites can no longer be reconstructed. We advocate that there is a pressing need to photograph (from all sides) and catalogue ALL megalithic stones and sites worldwide.

We hope also that our decipherment of the megaliths raises their value in the eyes of humanity and that they will all then be properly respected and maintained as the masterpieces of art and technology which they once were and still are.

The following links can now be used to navigate this website from this page.

| HOME | Site Map | Sky Map | The Book | England | Wales | Scotland | Ireland | France | Germany | Benelux | Italy Corsica Malta Sardinia | Switzerland & Austria | Spain Portugal | Scandinavia | The Baltic | Russia | Eastern Europe | Central Asia | Near East | Egypt & Africa | Greece | Turkey | USA & Canada | Mexico & Mesoamerica | South America | New Zealand & Oceania | China | Japan | Korea | Southeast Asia | India & Sri Lanka | Mercator | Kammrath | Cult of Horus | Nebra | Tanum | Osnabrueck | Oesterholz | Externsteine | Stars Stones and Scholars |



Legal Notice, Terms of Use, Impressum


The owner and webmaster of Megaliths.net is Andis Kaulins
B.A. University of Nebraska; J.D. Stanford University Law School
Former Lecturer in Anglo-American Law, FFA, Trier Law School
Author at Langenscheidt Fachverlag, Germany
Alumnus Associate of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison, NYC

This page was last updated on March 31, 2011.

Terms of Use, Privacy Policy, Impressum, Publisher

All materials presented on Megaliths.net are for information only.
No other relationship under the law is established to the user.
No warranties are made regarding the truth or accuracy of postings.
We disclaim any and all liability for the consequences of links to third party websites.

Legal Notice of Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials:
Copyrighted materials on Megaliths.net are posted under the "fair use" exception
as granted by Title 17 U.S.C. [United States Code] Section 107.



The Book by Andis Kaulins
(2003 softcover)
(2006 hardcover)

stars stones scholars
click for details



kaulins clava
CUPMARKS, URSA MINOR
Clava Cairns Scotland 2001


kaulins la hogue bie

LA HOGUE BIE
Go in there? Will it hold?
after 5000 years?

kaulins jersey
JERSEY, 2000
Andis at La Hogue Bie

andis kaulins carnac
CARNAC, FRANCE
Andis at Carnac 2000
Who, me?
Count all those stones?

External Megalithic Links
(alphabetically)

Adorant - Jurri Jurriaanse (.nl)
Ales stenar - Bob G. Lind
Ancient Egypt - Francesco Raffaele
Ancient History About - N.S. Gill
Ancient Scotland - Martin McCarthy
Ancient Stones - Gary Buckham
Ancient Stones Steinkreise Menhire
Hans Georg Stump

Ancient World Blog
Andis Kaulins

Anthro TECH
Anthropology Information Technology

Archeoastronomia Ligustica
Mario Codebò & Henry De Santis
Archaeoastronomy - J. Q. Jacobs
ArchaeoBlog - James Q. Jacobs
Archaeocosmology - Victor Reijs
Archaeologica - Michelle Hilling
Archaeology About - K. Kris Hirst
Archaeology Photos - Peter Langer
Archaeology Travel Photos
founded by Andis Kaulins

Archaeometry & Stonehenge
English Heritage

Archaeo News at Stone Pages
ArchNet - ASU
Arild Hauges Runer
Art History Resources
Chris Witcombe

Arts Graphiques
Odile Prigent-Paleologos

Avebury and Stonehenge
Terence Meaden

AW Mercator - Veerle Heyman
Bradshaw Foundation INORA
Brazil Rock Art
Reinaldo Morales

British Rock Art Collection
British Rock Art Blog
Cahokia Mounds
Calanais Scotland
Richard Kendrick Ferncase

Carnac Megaliths - Stephen Miller
Carnac Megaliths - Vicki Sherwood
Cat Shaman - Bengt Hemtun
Center for Archaeoastronomy
Central Asia - Saimaluu-Tash
Coordinate converter from Nearby.org.uk
Dolmen-Web
e-misterija (in Latvian)
Etymology - Douglas Harper
Explorator - David Meadows
Externsteine - Gerd Friedrich
Externsteine - Peter Weinfurth
Felsbilder - Dietrich Evers
FERCO - Thor Heyerdahl
Finland - Pekka Kivikas (.pdf)
Alice C. Fletcher
at Public Anthropology

Forschungskreis Externsteine
Vorsitzender Dr. Gert Meier
France Dolmens Menhirs
Bruno Marc

Freemedia - Astronomy Ethnology
Futhark - Audrey Fletcher
Gambia - Momodou Camara
Gene Culture Coevolution (.pdf)
Genelex (.pdf)
Geograph British Isles
Giza Building Project
Gnosis Archive
Google Earth
Hopi-Pawnee Connection
Gary A. David

Indo-European Roots
Irish Megaliths - Anthony Weir
Italy - Enrico Calzolari
Izapa - Jack Rudloe
IZAPA - Vincent H. Malmstroem
Japan - Kanayama Megaliths
Jeffers Petroglyphs
Kammrath Globe
Karelia - Vottovaara Mountain
Kents Cavern
King's Calendar - R.P. BenDedek
Knowth.com - Michael Fox
Korea Dolmens - Byon Kwang-Hyon
Kostenki
Early Humans in Europe

Lascaux Cave Official Site
Latvian Language Resources (.lv)
Latvian Traditions - Photos
LexiLine Journal
LexiLine Newsletter
Malta - Anton Bugeja
Malta Temples - Jim Diamond
Malta Temples - Mario Vassallo
Malta Temples OTS Foundation
Malta Vista
Medicine Wheel - Steven Dutch
Megalith Map UK
Megalith-Seiten
Thomas Wizke

Megalithen und Hünengräber
Mario H. Fietz

Megalithia - Richard Mudhar
Megalithic Economics
Robert Lomas

Megalithic Ireland - Jim Dempsey
Megalithic Portal - Andy Burnham
Megalithic Sites
of the World in Photos

Megalithic Temples of Malta
Daniel Cilia

Megalithic Wiki
Megalithica - John Harding
Megalithics
Maggie & Keith Davison

Megalithis France
Jean Sebastian Portaud

Megalithomania Ireland
Ian Thomson

Megaliths.net
Andis Kaulins & Martha Walker
Menorca - Eckhard Etzold
Miami Circle
Monumental Past
Cornelius Holtorf

Morien Institute
Mystic Culture - Joerg Riedel
Mythical Ireland
Anthony Murphy

Nazca Photos - Georges Rosset
Nascodex Andes
Netherlands Hunebedden
Hans Meijer

New Zealand - Martin Doutré
Old Stones - Michael D. Gunther
Orkneyjar - Sigurd Towrie
Rampant Scotland
Rock Art - Carl Bjork
Rupestre.net Rock Art & Petroglyphs
Sacred Destinations
Sacred Island Ireland
Martin Byrne

Sacred Sites - Martin Gray
Sardinia - Archeologia in Sardegna
Scandinavia - On the rocks
Scotland - Charles Tait
Scotland NE - Anna Edelsten
Scotland NE - Lindsey Piggot
Scotland Standing Stones
Joanne Mackenzie-Winters

Sites & Monuments Shee-Eire
Sky and Landscape - Robin Heath
Sky and Telescope
Slutarp Dolmen
Steentijd - Herman Clerinx
Stone Age Galleries Germany
Klaus Raedecke

Stone Circle Webring
Stone Monument Legends
D.L. Ashliman

Stone Pages
Paola Arosio & Diego Meozzi

Stone Search
Stonehenge - Bettina Licht (.de)
Stonehenge - Eternal Idol
Stonehenge Info
Stones and Stars Project
Stones of Wonder
Roberet Pollock

StoneWatch - Rock Art News
Surveyors Ancient Egypt
John F. Brock (.pdf)

Sussex - David Staveley
Tanum - Marijke Houwink
Tassili N'Ajjer - Andras Zboray
The Modern Antiquarian
Julian Cope

TimeWatch
Thornborough Henges

TopoZone US Canada Maps
Turkey Thrace - Rabia Erdogu
Ukraine - Yuri Shilov
Wales
Jason Freeman & Nicola Hill

Walters Corner - Walter Hermann
WikiWetter
Hubertus Schulze-Neuhoff

World Mysteries
Yemeni - Spencer Harrington
Yorkshire Rock Art
Graeme Chappell

1911 Encyclopedia

Megaliths.net - The Decipherment of the Megaliths


Key search words for Megaliths.net are: ancient,ancient America,ancient astronomy,ancient Britain,ancient Europe,ancient near east,ancient world,archaeology,archaeoastronomy,archeology,Argonauts,art history,artifacts,Balnuaran, Balnuaran of Clava,astronomy,barrows,cairns,Clava,cave paintings,civilization,decipherment,decipherment of the megaliths,dolmens,earthworks,ethnoastronomy,geodetics,history of art, history of astronomy,history of civilization,history of mankind,history of science,history of technology,lay lines,ley lines,leylines,megalith,megaliths.net,megalithic,megaliths,Neolithic,Neolithic art,prehistoric,prehistoric art,rock art,rock drawings,rings,standing stones,stars,stellar constellations,stone circles,stones,Stone Age,stone rows,surveyors,tumuli,Wayland's Smithy,Wayland,Zodiac,Andis,Andis Kaulins,Kaulins,Schubel,Martha Schubel,Walker,Martha Walker.



_||_ Members of The Stone Circle WebRing _||_
[ Join Now | Ring Hub | Random | < Prev | Next > ]
The ISandIS Network

Our Websites and Blogs: 99 is not 100 Aabecis AK Photo Blog Alpha Pundit Ancient Egypt Weblog Ancient World Blog AndisKaulins.com Andis Kaulins Blog Archaeology Travel Photos (blog) Archaeology Travel Photos (Flickr) Archaeology Websearch Archaeo Pundit Arts and Sciences Journal Arts Pundit Astrology and Birth Baltic Coachman Bible Pundit Biotechnology Pundit Blogacus Bloggers’ Pundit Book Pundit Chronology of the Ancient World Computer Pundit DocStoc (AKaulins) DVD Pundit EarnATon blog Easter Island Script Echolat edu.edu Einstein’s Voice Energy Environment and Climate Blog Etruscan Bronze Liver of Piacenza EU Laws EU Legal EU Pundit FaceBook Pundit Gadget Pundit Garden Pundit getCITED Golf Pundit Google Pundit Gourmet Pundit Hand Proof House Pundit Human Migrations Idea Pundit Illyrian Language Indus Valley Script Infinity One : The Secret of the First Disk (the game) Isandis (blogspot) Isandis Net (blogspot) Jostandis Journal Pundit Kaulins Genealogy Blog Kaulinsium (WordPress) Kiel & Kieler Latvian Blog LawPundit.com LawPundit (blog I) Law Pundit (blog II) LearnATon blog LexiLine.com LexiLine Group Lexiline Journal Library Pundit Life’s Laws and Rules Lingwhizt LinkedIn Literary Pundit Magnifichess Make it Music Maps and Cartography Megalithic Wiki at Wikia.com (Andis Kaulins, founder) Megalithic World Megaliths (blog) Megaliths.net Minoan Culture Mutatis Mutandis Nanotech Pundit Nostratic Languages Official Pundit Phaistos Disc Pharaonic Hieroglyphs Photo Blog of the World Prehistoric Art Pundit Private Wealth Blog PunditMania Quanticalian Quick to Travel Quill Pundit Road Pundit Shelfari SlideShare (akaulins) Sport Pundit Star Pundit Stars Stones and Scholars (blog) Stars Stones and Scholars (book) Stonehenge Pundit The Enchanted Glass Twitter Pundit UbiquitousPundit Vision of Change VoicePundit WatchPundit Wine Pundit Word Pundit xistmz YahooPundit zistmz