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Stars Stones and Scholars

MEGALITHS.CO.UK
presents
The Pioneer Decipherment of Megalithic Sites
by Andis Kaulins
B.A. University of Nebraska; J.D. Stanford University Law School
Lecturer in Anglo-American Law, FFA, University of Trier Law School, Germany

Author, Langenscheidt Fachverlag, Germany

Alumnus Associate, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison, New York City
Supported by the Photography of Martha Walker
Illustrations and Drawings by Andis Kaulins (for *Kaulin see* Ceawlin)
First-time users, please read this page in full below before clicking any links.

The ideas found on this site are available

in expanded form in a 420-page book.

GO TO:
STARS STONES and SCHOLARS:
THE DECIPHERMENT OF THE MEGALITHS
AS AN ANCIENT SURVEY OF THE EARTH BY ASTRONOMY

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Why were megalithic sites built?




Astronomy
Geodetics
Neolithic Man



Ancient
Land
Survey





ANCIENT SCOTLAND


Neolithic Sites
Ordnance Survey

Balnuaran of Clava


ANCIENT BRITAIN

Northern
Southern
Heavens
Mapped by
Ancient
Seafarers


MEGALITHS ARE CARVED WITH FIGURES IN RELIEF








Tumuli
Barrows
Caves



CUPMARKS AND HOLES ARE STARS

Stellar
Constellations
Ecliptic
Celestial Equator
Precession
Pole Stars
Equinoxes
Solstices
Milky Way












MEGALITHS ARE SCULPTED INTO SHAPES

Cairns
Quoits
Earthworks
Mounds

Journey to Africa





MEGALITHS MARK REGIONAL BORDERS


Hadrian's Wall
River Tyne
Eridanus
Scotland
Wales
England
Ireland
Channel Islands








MEGALITHS MARK NATIONAL BORDERS

Germany
France
Mediterranean
Sardinia












MEGALITHS MARK CALENDAR ORIGIN

Winter Solstice
December 25
3117 BC









MEGALITHS MADE BY THE LEGENDARY ARGONAUTS

Aesculapius
Jason
Merlin
King Arthur
Knights
of the Round Table


Arbor Low
Megalithic Artists



MEGALITHS MUST BE SAVED AND MAINTAINED AS PREHISTORIC ART AND TECHNOLOGY

Save the Megaliths.
Thank you all.

Megalithic Sites are Astronomy and Geodetics
(this page is best viewed if you maximize your window)

Megaliths ("giant standing stones") or related constructions such as cairns, dolmens, ancient earthworks, dykes, cursus, etc. were built by ancient man for purposes of Astronomy and Geodetics.

Stated simply, stars were used to measure the Earth and vice versa. This human achievement dates to the Neolithic Period (Stone Age), long before such technology was thought possible by modern scholars.

As discovered by Andis Kaulins, Neolithic megalithic sites are astronomy in a cohesive broadly based geodetic survey system. Megalithic sites marked geographic land borders as triangulated by astronomy, e.g. in Scotland and England, much as the kudurri (border stones) of Mesopotamia. In modern times, triangulation cornerstones have been put underground. In ancient days, these stones were visible above the surface - and there most of them have remained to this day.

MEGALITHIC SITES IN SCOTLAND

All Neolithic sites in Scotland listed in the Ordnance Survey map of Ancient Britain (ISBN 0-319-29028-X) form a planisphere (sky map) of the northern and southern heavens with a center at BALNUARAN of CLAVA, where BAL surely means POLE, while NUARAN surely was an ancient name for the "River of Light" (Heaven) as in Hebrew NEHAR DI NUR and Arabic NAHR. See Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, Dover (ISBN 0-486-21079-0). The decipherment began at Clava.

MEGALITHIC SITES IN ENGLAND and WALES

All Neolithic sites in England marked on the Ordnance Survey map of Ancient Britain, including megaliths, quoits, tumuli and barrows form a map projection of the stars of the northern and southern heavens, with the center of the system at the Herefordshire Beacon and Midsummer Hill. Sites later than the Neolithic period show that the ancients adjusted for precession. The site called The Hurlers in Cornwall is a location at which precession was calculated in Ancient Britain. (Ireland is in preparation).

MEGALITHIC STANDING STONES ARE CARVED WITH FIGURES

Standing stones, tumuli, barrows, cairns, dolmens, and pit special swallets and caves all mark the stars of the heavens in Ancient Britain. Many megaliths are carved with reliefs of interlocking figures which identify the stars to which stones are oriented (this Neolithic artistic style compares to modern works of M.C. Escher). Although our decipherment formally "began" at Balnuaran of Clava in Scotland through the cupmarked stones at that site, the megaliths at Wayland's Smithy e.g. were among the first stones solved, based on the carved (sculpted) shape of the stones themselves as well as through carvings on the stones and holes in the stones marking stars. This paved the way for the rest of the megaliths and for carvings found on ceremonial objects placed in swallets or hewn on the walls of caves.

Tumuli and barrows are arranged in groups to mark certain star clusters, e.g. the Knowlton Rings show Taurus and the Hyades. Winterbourne Stoke shows the stars of the Pleiades. In some cases, the apparently man-worked shape of cave rooms also identifies the stellar constellations or geodetic locations. Various earthworks even plan and record the astronomical and geodetic work, e.g. west of Torquay (Torbay) and east of Lewes, England.

MEGALITHS HAVE CUPMARKS OR INDENTATIONS REPRESENTING STARS

Many standing stones have cupmarks or less formal indentations or holes on them marking the stars or stellar constellations which they represent. Additional markings on some stones identify parameters such as ecliptic, celestial equator, circle of precession, center of heaven (north ecliptic pole, south ecliptic pole), north pole star, south pole star, cord of the fish, Milky Way and solstice and equinox points.

Weathering has made it harder to identify holes and figures - but erosive processes also work on the contours of reliefs, holes and cupmarks, so that these do not disappear entirely. Using modern graphics software and the numerous tools available for microscopic analysis of photographs, most of these sculpted figures, indentations and markings on megaliths, cairns, stones and dolmens can be reconstructed, e.g. by redrawing only the heaviest visible lines or marks on the stones, or adjusting the brightness, color and contrast of pictures. This detective work allows the stars intended by the ancients to be identified in many cases.

MEGALITHS AND SITES ARE INTENTIONALLY SHAPED

Many cairns or quoits are in the shape of the star groups they represent. The shape of many stones shows the appropriate part of the heavens explicitly. Ancient earthworks also served astronomical purposes. Tumuli and barrows mark specific stars or nebulae. A cursus at a site may, e.g., mark the Milky Way. Earthwork mounds may form the shape of a celestial object, e.g. the Large Magellanic Cloud. The ancients - as shown on Megaliths.co.uk - knew the southern skies and left us evidence carved in stone that they traveled as far as e.g. Africa, where we still find megaliths in the Central African Republic, megaliths now easily explained by geodetic survey and astronomy.

MEGALITHIC SITES MARK REGIONAL BORDERS

Megalithic boundaries mark both small and large geographic areas.
Counties in Scotland still retain elements of the approximate size, shape, and location of their comparable stellar constellations, located on earth by megaliths. Perthshire in Scotland e.g. retains the name PERSeus in PERTH. Megalithic sites in Perthshire such as Fowlis Wester represent stars in Perseus. The relative size and shape of Perthshire corresponds to the comparable constellation.

MEGALITHIC SITES MARK NATIONAL BORDERS

Megalithic sites also involve geodetic survey by astronomy of regions on a larger scale, showing e.g. that the ancient border between Scotland and England was at Eridanus (Hadrian), represented by the River Tyne (Eri-Danus, with Danus = Tyne, the watershed between Scotland and England) and ending at New Castle ("new earthwork"). The ancients made separate measurements for England (Wales included), Scotland and Ireland, each with its own center of heaven for survey. The Channel Islands are also represented.

On the European continent, each region had their own geodetic survey. In Germany astronomical works of the Magdalenians (later called Franks or Franken), were passed down as the legendary Ring of the Nibelungen, living on the Neckar (Nahr). Tumuli (Hügelgräber), megaliths throughout Germany, and the Felsenmeer between Frankfurt and Heidelberg are clearly ancient astronomical geodetic markers. The Externsteine were a center of astronomical activity. The Gollenstein (Gollen Stone) at Blieskastel in Germany near Saarbrücken is the largest megalith in Middle Europe (7.6 meters high of which 6.6 meters are above the ground). This megalith represents Hydra, the "longest" stellar constellation. Megaliths extend outward from the Gollen Stone and these megaliths surely marked the ancient border to France.


In France, the cave paintings, and the stones at Carnac and elsewhere are ALL astronomical geodetic monuments. Mediterranean islands also have megaliths, such as the stone Sa Perda Pinta from Boeli [pole] near Mamoiada which we find marked the center of heaven for Sardinia in ancient days. Sardinia is of particular interest since its ancient language is similar to Sumerian and Latvian. Obviously, the nuraghis of Sardinia mark stars of the heavens. Indeed, Neolithic megalithic sites around the world mark an ancient geodetic survey of Earth which we date to ca. 3117 BC.

MEGALITHIC SITES MARK THE START OF THE CALENDAR

Geographic locations of megaliths were intentionally oriented to the stars and to objects of the heavens in a given era. For Neolithic sites, the cardinal date seems to be December 25, 3117 BC (-3116 by astronomy) when eclipses involving the conjunction of the Sun, Moon and Jupiter occurred at the tip of the "boat" of Capricorn (as calculated by Starry Night Pro, ISBN 1-894395-01-8), with Mars and Saturn at Spica in Virgo, and the rest of the visible planets at the Winter Solstice point. This unique phenomenon was well suited to start the first long-term human calendar - retained in e.g. Hindu and Maya calendration. But we will discover that this calendric beginning was marked on Earth in earthworks near Lewes, England, and elsewhere on the British Isles.

WHO WAS THE BRAINS BEHIND THE MEGALITHIC SYSTEM?

Some complex stones show a singular style, perhaps from one artist, who we call Merlin for lack of a better name, presumably residing at Kents Cavern (which has a room showing Siamese twins), and who we equate with the legendary physician Aesculapius of the fabled Argo of Jason. The Argonauts (argos = earth), as we shall show, were the first men to conduct a wide-reaching geodetic survey of Earth. "Merlin" as a name probably goes back to the root MER- meaning "measure, survey" in ancient Indo-European, e.g. Latvian. We will allege that Merlin was buried at Paviland as the first modern scientist ("sorcerer" or "shaman") and that his exploits are also recorded in Pharaonic Egypt as NAR-MER (measurer of earth and heaven - NAHR) and that his contemporary follower King Orry, who is buried on the Isle of Man, is probably the fabled King Arthur of legend, known in our analysis as Hor-Aha in Pharaonic Egypt, whose Twelve Knights of the "Round Table" were the Argonauts of old, and whose Round Table was the Zodiac of Stars.

The majority of standing stones, some laid flat as at Arbor Low, of course, show a creative art probably wielded by many individual sculptors. These artists depict the heavens using figures not standardized at this early period of history, and thus show much variety in design and astronomical artistic interpretation.

SAVING AND MAINTAINING THE MEGALITHIC SITES

Regrettably, many megalithic sites have been destroyed by people who know no better and such ancient sites can no longer be reconstructed. We advocate that there is a pressing need to photograph (from all sides) and catalogue ALL megalithic stones and sites worldwide.

We hope also that our decipherment of the megaliths raises their value in the eyes of humanity and that they will all then be properly respected and maintained as the masterpieces of art and technology which they once were and still are.

Thank you to all members of the former ACELIST and the current LEXILINE list, whose participation contributed to the ultimate deciphering solution presented here. Thank you also to authors of websites and books referenced on this site. Last but not least, thank you to all who contributed along the way to this remarkable result.

Why were megalithic sites built?




Astronomy
Geodetics
Neolithic Man



Ancient
Land
Survey





ANCIENT SCOTLAND


Neolithic Sites
Ordnance Survey

Balnuaran of Clava


ANCIENT BRITAIN

Northern
Southern
Heavens
Mapped by
Ancient
Seafarers


MEGALITHS ARE CARVED WITH FIGURES IN RELIEF








Tumuli
Barrows
Caves



CUPMARKS AND HOLES ARE STARS

Stellar
Constellations
Ecliptic
Celestial Equator
Precession
Pole Stars
Equinoxes
Solstices
Milky Way












MEGALITHS ARE SCULPTED INTO SHAPES

Cairns
Quoits
Earthworks
Mounds

Journey to Africa





MEGALITHS MARK REGIONAL BORDERS


Hadrian's Wall
River Tyne
Eridanus
Scotland
Wales
England
Ireland
Channel Islands








MEGALITHS MARK NATIONAL BORDERS

Germany
France
Mediterranean
Sardinia












MEGALITHS MARK CALENDAR ORIGIN

Winter Solstice
December 25
3117 BC









MEGALITHS MADE BY THE LEGENDARY ARGONAUTS

Aesculapius
Jason
Merlin
King Arthur
Knights
of the Round Table


Arbor Low
Megalithic Artists



MEGALITHS MUST BE SAVED AND MAINTAINED AS PREHISTORIC ART AND TECHNOLOGY

Save the Megaliths.
Thank you all.


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