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Stars Stones and Scholars:
The Decipherment of the Megaliths

(2003 softcover)
(2006 hardcover)

stars stones scholars

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Andis Kaulins Scotland 2001
At Balnuaran of Clava

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Andis Kaulins in Malta 1988
Malta Temples, at Tarxien

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STONEHENGE: | Barrows | Groundplan | Sarsens | Stonehenge Breastplate | Trilithons |
WILTSHIRE: | Knowlton Rings | Winterbourne Stoke | Pleiades | Silbury Hill | Woodhenge | Avebury |

Megaliths Deciphered

Ancient Britain
As Astronomy

First-time users please read
the Index Page
thoroughly for understanding.

UPDATE (see also):
New axeheads on megaliths at Stonehenge have recently been discovered by laser technology. See Stonehenge Laser-Scanned Axeheads Deciphered as Astronomy: Sarsens 5, 4 and 3 and Trilithon 53 (or) How Is it That Archaeologists Are Unable to Recognize the Big Dipper?


The idea that Stonhenge megaliths contain anthropomorphic (human-like) faces and other carved figures is not new to this author. In the seminal Stonehenge book, Stonehenge Complete by Christopher Chippindale, Chippindale points to the dagger and axe (plates 174 and 175, p. 203) carved on stone 53 (a trilithon) and in Plates 216 through 219 (pp. 244-245) shows four faces in the stones. We have identified many more faces, figures and cupmarks on the stones, and we have discovered that these are intended to show stars and star groups in the sky.

Andis Kaulins has made a stellar interpretation of both the general and specific orientation of the Stonehenge sarsens and trilithons, as shown in the graphics below. The star groups identified here for the Stonehenge Barrows are located at the same relative geographic positions on the ground and with respect to the sky as the positions of the sarsens and trilithons of the main Stonehenge circle. For example, the position of Scorpio on the megaliths of the main Stonehenge Circle of sarsens and trilithons matches the position of Scorpio in the barrows. This is another check and balance of the accuracy of the Stonehenge decipherment presented on these pages.

Furthermore, the astronomical explanation provides substantial clues as to the various purposes of the general earthworks of the area. The Stonehenge Cursus, for example, in our explanation of the stones, marks the line of the Equinoxes. Indeed, even the general earthworks and terrain of the surrounding area seem also to have mirrored the shape of the Milky Way, which would not be surprising, since ancient stargazers gave the Milky Way much more attention than we do today. This increased attention to the Milky Way probably came in part because they had no electric lighting and their air was probably cleaner than ours is in the modern era.


Stonehenge Stellar Constellations (Star Groups)

The outer ring of Stonehenge can be divided into twelve sections as above, showing the starry constellations to which these sections of Stonehenge apply, corresponding also to the location of the Stonehenge Barrows and the stellar constellations applying to those barrows. The 10 trilithons mark 10 of these sections, excluding the stars at Hydra/Cancer and Leo at the Summer Solstice point. The 30 sarsens mark "moon stations" in the stars, i.e. their markings correspond to stars in a specific area of the sky. The trilithons as also the sarsens are carved accordingly with anthropomorphic and similar figures and other markings such as cupmarks and holes to mark those stars. Our drawing is based on an aerial photo by Chorley and Handford in the Pitkin Guide, The Prehistoric Temples of Stonehenge and Avebury, by Keith Sugden, ISBN 0853727104 and also on an aerial photo by Photo West Air Photographing, Weston-super-Mare as found in Chippindale's above-cited book.


Each megalith, i.e. sarsen or trilithon also marks stars or groups of stars in the sky. Below is a Stonehenge overview where T = Trilithon and S = Sarsen, with the numbers corresponding to the standard Stonehenge megalithic numbering. We see below that T 53, Stone 53, a trilithon, corresponds to the stars of Scorpio and that is why this megalith has axe figures on it, because these correspond to the shape of the head stars of Scorpio.

Stonehenge Overview

Stonehenge Decipherment View

The 30 Sarsens marked the moon stations in the stars, and the applicable stars are shown by figures, marks and holes in the sarsens. 10 Constellations along the ecliptic were represented by the 10 Trilithons , with the open end of the horseshoe excluding Trilithons for Hydra (Cancer) and Leo toward the Sommer Solstice point. 19 Bluestones marked the Metonic Cycle. 30 "Y" Holes marked "full" months of 30 days. 29 "Z" Holes marked "defective" months of 29 days. The "new moon" month is 29.53 days, so the ancients used some form of alternation between these two rings. 56 Aubrey Holes were used for eclipse prediction based on the ca. 18.6-year cycle of eclipses x 3. The Avenue pointed toward the Summer Solstice point at the Heelstone on a line running from the North Celestial Pole through (or slightlly past) the tip of Ursa Minor and through Ursa Major, marked by the Slaughter Stone.

Stonehenge Sarsens and Trilithons and the Stars they Mark

Our identifications of the stars and star groups marked by the sarsens and trilithons at Stonehenge are as follows. Every sarsen that is not identified in black is quite speculative because we simply have no photo materials, not enough photo materials available, or poor quality photographs at our service which prohibit us from making more accurate identifications. We have prepared the illustrations below from photos and have added our explanations:

Sarsen 1 marks the head of Hydra and Cancer.
Sarsen 2
marks the star Alphard at the neck of Hydra.

Stonehenge Sarsen 2 Sarsen 1 Sarsen 30 Sarsen 29

Sarsen 3 marks Ursa Major (front side) and Cygnus and Aquila (back side).

Sarsen 4 marks the Head of Leo.

Regulus is at the front paws with axes marking Leo Minor above the lion. (As I wrote at the LexiLine Journal
(see "Long before "laser technology" found axes on Sarsen 4, I identified them using computer graphic programs, and indeed for Sarsen 4 I have these axes identified as Leo Minor on page 122 of Stars, Stones and Scholars." That decipherment was uploaded to on July 31, 2002.)
Sarsen 5 = Body of Leo (Denebola) to Corvus (? - uncertain of the markings)
Sarsen 6
marks Coma Berenices and Virgo (Spica)
Sarsen 7
marks Boötes (Arcturus)

Stonehenge Sarsens 3 4 5 6 and 7

   Stonehenge Sarsen 4 Leo and Axes of Leo Minor  Stonehenge Sarsen 3 front side Ursa Major

Sarsen 8 = (stone has fallen) Sarsen 8 could conceivably have marked Libra. No photos available.
Sarsen 9 = (stone has fallen) Sarsen 9 could conceivably have marked a star at the Autumn Equinox point. No photos available.
Sarsen 10 marks Corona Borealis.
Sarsen 11
marks Serpens Caput.
Sarsen 12 = (stone has fallen) Sarsen 12 could conceivably have marked Scorpio. No photos available.
Sarsen 13 = (stone is missing) Sarsen 13 could conceivably have marked Sagittarius.
Sarsen 14 = (stone has fallen).
Sarsen 14 marks Aquila. Gerald S. Hawkins in Stonehenge Decoded at p. 43 writes that this stone has a large indentation mark which commentator R.C. Atkinson compared to a right foot "considerably larger than my own". This is what we today see as the "lozenge-shaped" form of Aquila.
Sarsen 15 = (stone is missing) Sarsen 15 could conceivably have marked Capricorn. No photos available.
Sarsen 16 = Aquarius.

(Gerald S. Hawkins in Stonehenge Decoded at p. 68 writes that this stone has long grooves on it thought by commentator Patrick Hill to come from "sliding" the stone when it was moved from its place of origin to Stonehenge. That is very, very unlikely. Why only THIS sarsen then and not the others, which also had to be moved similarly? Those long grooves on Sarsen 16 symbolize water, as they often did in antiquity and as they still mark Aquarius today. Sarsen 16 marks the line of wavy stars on the right side of Aquarius (not the bucket of Aquarius on its left).

Sarsen 17 = (stone is missing) Sarsen 17 could conceivably have marked Cygnus (Deneb) and the star Enif.
Sarsen 18 = (stone is missing) Sarsen 18 could conceivably have marked the bucket of Aquarius.
Sarsen 19 = (stone has fallen) Sarsen 19 could conceivably have marked Lacerta and the back of Pegasus. No photos available.
Sarsen 20 = (stone is missing) Sarsen 20 could conceivably have marked Pisces.
Sarsen 21 marks Cassiopeia.
We originally thought thought in our book Stars Stones and Scholars that this could be Perseus and the Pleiades, but Perseus did not really fit the upper cupmarks.
Sarsen 22 marks Andromeda.
Sarsen 22 fell in 1900 and was restored in 1958. We originally thought in Stars Stones and Scholars that Sarsen 22 marked Taurus because of its V-Shape, but this is Andromeda if Sarsen 21 is Cassiopeia.
Stonehenge Sarsens 21 and 22
Note that we have changed our mind about which stars these are. Read above.

Sarsen 23 marks Aries.
This stone fell in March 1963 and was then restored in 1964. The stone has a horn shape at the top, which would fit Aries as a symbol. See Chippindale's Stonehenge Complete, Plate IX, page 54.
Sarsen 24 = (stone is missing) Sarsen 24 could conceivably have marked a star at the Spring Equinox point.
Sarsen 25 = (stone has fallen) Sarsen 25 could conceivably have marked Perseus and the Pleiades. No photos available.
Sarsen 26 = (stone has fallen) Sarsen 26 could conceivably have marked Taurus. No photos available.
Sarsen 27 marks the stars of Auriga.
We originally thought that this megalith marked stars to the right of Orion,
but we were not sure which stars. We now think this is Auriga.

Sarsen 28 marks Orion (front side) and Corona Borealis and Serpens Caput (back side).
Sarsen 29 marks Canis Major (front side) and Ophiuchus (back side).

Stonehenge Sarsens 27 and 28   Stonehenge Sarsens 28 and 29 back side

Sarsen 30 marks Cancer and Canis Minor

Trilithon 51
marks Virgo and Coma Berenices.
Trilithon 52 marks Boötes.
Trilithon 53 marks the Front (Head) of Scorpio.
Trilithon 54 marks the Back of Scorpio.

  Stonehenge Trilithons 57 and 58 Stonehenge Trilithon 56 Stonehenge Trilithons 53 and 54  

Trilithon 55 (stone has fallen) marks Sagittarius.
Trilithon 56 marks Capricorn.
Trilithon 57 marks Andromeda and Cassiopeia.
Trilithon 58 marks Triangulum and Aries.
Trilithon 59 (the stone has fallen) marks Perseus and the Pleiades.
This is a "rifled" stone. As shown in the book Stars Stones and Scholars, "rifled" stones almost always mark the Pleiades and this stone is rifled with what Chippindale calls "ridges" (see Chippindale, Stonehenge Complete, p. 269, plate 243). Originally, the rifling represented "eels".
Trilithon 60 marks Taurus.

Heel Stone. The Heelstone points toward Cancer and Hydra (and Leo), which are marked on the stone. In our opinion, the stone was tilted intentionally to the left by its makers to mark the "leaning" stars of Gemini, whose tilt points to the Summer Solstice point. The ancients will have extended Gemini out further from Castor and Pollux than we do today.

Stonehenge Heelstone (Heel Stone) Left Side    Stonehenge Heelstone (Heel Stone) Right Side

Slaughter Stone. The Slaughter Stone marks Ursa Major and is marked on the stone. In ca. 1749 B.C. the star Beta Ursae Majoris (Merak) is approximately on the line (colure) of the Summer Solstice extending from the North Celestial Pole to the Summer Solstice point on the ecliptic.

For the system of stars used,
see Stonehenge Gold Breastplate of the High Priest.

Megalithic Site Name: Stonehenge
Nation/Country/State: United Kingdom, England
District/Region/Parish/County: Salisbury, Amesbury
Local Location: Salisbury Plain
GPS: 51°10'44" N, 1°49'35" W
Grid: SU 1224 4218
Monument No.: SU 14 SW 4
Unique Identifier: 219434
Directions: On the A344 off the A303, 2 miles W of Amesbury & 9 miles N of Salisbury
Site Access: English Heritage & National Trust Members admitted free. Adults £5.90. Children £3.00. Concession £4.40. Family (2 adults + 3 children) £14.80. Closed Dec. 24-26 & Jan. 1. Opens daily 9:30 a.m. (9:00 June 1 - Aug. 31). Closes 4:00 p.m. (Oct. 16 - March 15), 6:00 p.m. (March 16 - May 31, Sep. 1 - Oct. 15), 7:00 p.m. (June 1 - Aug. 31).
Administration: English Heritage, The National Trust
Protection Status: World Heritage Site

First-time users please read
Index Page thoroughly for understanding.

Bedford Cambridge Therfield Heath Royston Star Surveying Geometry Herefordshire Oxfordshire Gloucestershire Isle of Man North Wales Corona Australis Sagittarius South Wales Scorpio Arthurs Stone Serpens Caput Paviland Ophiuchus Cornwall Crux Centaurus Cornwall Apus Musca Large Magellanic Cloud Devon Kents Cavern Torquay Virgo Boötes Kents Cavern Torquay Torbay Merlin's Cave Aries Pisces Cetus West Sussex Grus Indus Pavo Southern Triangle East Sussex Stonehenge Silbury Hill Knowlton Pleiades Perseus Taurus Gemini Somerset Swallets Kent Coldrum Catigern Ara Jullieberries Wayland's Smithy Andromeda Pegasus Vale of the White Horse Lewes bottom stars of Capricorn GNOMON 3117 BC Bedford Cambridge Therfield Heath Royston Liverpool Manchester Calderstones Derbyshire Peak District Aquila Creswell Crags Lincoln Aquila Capricorn Rombalds Moor Pavo Indus Octans Cumbria Southern Polar Star Dorado Hydrus Reticulum Snowden Carr Large Magellanic Cloud Bird of Paradise Rudston Stone Yorkshire Eridanus Hydrus Rudston Stone Yorkshire Eridanus Hydrus Yorkshire Thornborough Circles Ripon Southern Pole Star Calculation The following links can be used
to navigate this website from this page.

STONEHENGE: | Barrows | Groundplan | Sarsens | Stonehenge Breastplate | Trilithons |

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