Sites of Ancient Britain in England and Wales:
Southwest | Cornwall
| England South
Southeast | West Sussex
| Lewes | East Sussex
| Kent | Berkshire
| Peak District
| Creswell Crags
| West Yorkshire
| Snowden Carr
| East Yorkshire
| Isle of Man
| North Wales
| South Wales
WILTSHIRE: | Knowlton Rings
| Silbury Hill
| Avebury |
First-time users please read
Page thoroughly for understanding.
GROUND PLAN OF STONEHENGE
Photographs and illustrations of Stonehenge often
do not provide
precise geographic orientation for the normal viewing reader, who in
his mind's eye may then tend to see Stonehenge more as a simple stone
circle rather than as a group of differentiable megaliths
intentionally positioned by ancient man to serve a specific function.
The first graphic consists of a modern photo by us (2005) plus an
plan of Stonehenge as it appears today (both by Andis Kaulins).
The middle graphic is a scan
Kaulins of a fold-out Stonehenge survey map from the year
1810. One scan was
made of each map half and both then pasted together on a PC using
graphics software to create one image. That original survey
map is found glued to
the inside margin of page 55 of William Long's
book, Stonehenge and its Barrows
published in Devizes in 1876 from the original publication in Wiltshire
Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol. xvi, Wiltshire
Archaeological and Natural History Society. The
Stonehenge map in Long gives the same
view from the bottom
upwards as our
photograph and illustrated ground plan above it. These two graphic
images thus provide an excellent
frontal view of Stonehenge combined with a matching "aerial"
perspective of the larger megalithic site. Stonehenge is thereby viewed
along its main axis, which is the Stonehenge
Avenue, usually just called the Avenue. Gerald S.
Hawkins in his book Stonehenge
Decoded (p. 54) writes that the 30 sarsens were
spaced uniformly as an outer circle with an average error of less than
4 inches, but "At
the northeast, precisely--as might be expected--on the midsummer
sunrise line, there was an entrance to this circle, made by spacing two
stones (1 and 30) 12 inches farther apart than average
gap is quite apparent in the photograph above.
that photograph The large fallen stone a bit to
the left at the
top of the avenue is the Slaughter Stone,
which is not as famous as the Heel Stone,
not pictured here because yours truly, the photographer, like
the rising sun
, is standing at the location of that Heel
Stone looking down the Avenue toward the awaiting Stonehenge sarsens
and trilithons. The
survey map has a main caption reading "Ground
Plan of Stonehenge
" and thereunder the words: "Transfered
to Stone, from the Original Copper Plates, by the kind permission of J.
Bruce Nichols Esqre
Our graphic below shows how Stonehenge must have looked when all stones
were intact in their places ca. 1749 B.C. by our calculations. Note
that Stonehenge was a lunisolar calculating machine. The 30 Sarsens
marked the moon stations in the stars, and the applicable stars are
shown by figures, marks and holes in the sarsens. 10 Constellations
were represented by the Trilithons along the ecliptic, with the open
end of the horseshoe excluding Hydra (Cancer) and Leo
toward the Sommer Solstice point. 19 Bluestones makred the
Metonic Cycle. 30 "Y" Holes marked "full" months of 30 days. 29 "Z"
Holes marked "defective" months of 29 days. The "new moon" month is
29.53 days, so the ancients used some form of alternation between these
two rings. 56 Aubrey Holes were used for eclipse prediction based on
the ca. 18.6-year cycle of eclipses x 3. The Avenue pointed toward the
Summer Solstice point at the Heelstone on a line running from the North
Celestial Pole through (or slighltly past) the tip of Ursa Minor and
through Ursa Major, marked by the Slaughter Stone..
of the Stonehenge Site by Astronomy
Gerald S. Hawkins in Stonehenge Decoded, Doubleday, 1965, writes that "Newham and Charriere ... have both commented
... that the
latitude of Stonehenge is practically optimum for sun-moon rectangular
alignment.... [I]n the northern hemisphere there is only one latitude
for which, at their extreme declinations, the sun and moon azimuths are
separated by 90 degrees. Stonehenge is within a few miles of that
As Hawkins notes, the replica of Stonehenge at Maryhill, Klickitat
County, Washington, USA, is at the wrong latitude 5 degrees too far
south, and hence the luni-solar alignments do not work properly. That
is what happens when well-meaning people do not properly
understand the astronomy of the megaliths.
Seriousness of Stonehenge
Stonehenge was thus not just erected by chance as some kind of a
"religious" object as erroneously thought by mainstream scholars
ignorant of ancient astronomy, but was located pursuant to strict
astronomical considerations. That is why the ancients transported giant
stones over hundreds of
miles from the quarries to this location, rather than to build their
astronomical clock in situ.
Purpose of Stonehenge in Historical Writings
Diodorus Sicilus (1st century BC) writes in Book II, Loeb Library
translation, concerning the "Hyperboreans" and
their royal kings and priests, the "Boreades" (Brits), as follows:
"And there is also on the
both a magnificent sacred precinct of
Apollo [the SUN] and a notable temple which is adorned with many votive
offerings and is SPHERICAL in shape....
They say also that the moon, as viewed from this island, appears to be
but a little distance from the earth and to have upon it prominences,
like those of the earth, which are visible to the eye.
The account is also given that the god visits the island every nineteen
years, the period in which the return of the stars to the same place in
the heavens is accomplished; and for this reason the nineteen-year
period is called by the Greeks the 'year of Meton'.
At the time of this appearance of the god he both plays on the
cithara and dances continuously the night through from the vernal
equinox until the rising of the Pleiades....
The purpose of Stonehenge is thus quite clear from ancient writings as
well as from modern computer studies of alignments, ala Hawkins.
It was an astronomical instrument erected in the Stone Age era at a
specific location designed for its purpose by earth and sky.
Here is what we write
on the Index Page of megaliths.net
Megaliths.net is a systematic
graphic-supported analysis of
megaliths and megalithic sites around the world which shows that
ancient megalithic sites are land survey sites located by prehistoric
astronomy. As observed by Alice
Cunningham Fletcher (Alice C. Fletcher) in her 1902 publication in
Anthropologist, there is ample evidence that some ancient
cultures, e.g. the Pawnee
in Nebraska, geographically
located their villages according to patterns
seen in stars of the heavens.
FLETCHER, A. C. (1902), STAR
CULT AMONG THE PAWNEE —A PRELIMINARY REPORT. American Anthropologist,
4: 730–736. doi: 10.1525/aa.1902.4.4.02a00050.
The photograph that we have inserted here at the left is a photograph that includes Alice Cunningham
Fletcher with Nez Perce Chief Joseph and is described at the Wikipedia as follows:
Fletcher and Chief Joseph at the Nez Percé Lapwai Reservation in Idaho, where Fletcher arrived in 1889
to implement the Dawes Act. The man on one
knee is James Stuart, Alice Fletcher's interpreter. According to Jane
Gay in "With the Nez Perces" (University of Nebraska Press, 1981),
Stuart customarily kneeled in this way when he felt anxious. Photograph
by Jane Gay. (Courtesy Smithsonian Institution, National
Anthropological Archives [MS4558]. Images from the National
Anthropological Archives may not be reproduced without permission.)"
The Smithsonian image is in the public domain.
The Hermetic PAWNEE Star Lodge System
The most ancient plan of Stonehenge looks like this
(we trust that even modern archaeologists can see the similarity)
The image above is my scan of an
original survey map of
Stonehenge as found glued to the inside margin of page 55 of William Long's
book, Stonehenge and its Barrows, published
in Devizes in
1876 from the Wiltshire
Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol. xvi, Wiltshire
Archaeological and Natural History Society. That book is still the
best book ever published on Stonehenge, except for Gerald
S. Hawkins, Stonehenge Decoded.
Pawnee Star System was applied hermetically on Earth i.e. "As Above, so
Below" and Fletcher's drawings show without any doubt that this same
system was quite obviously used in the oldest constructions at famous
locations such as Avebury, Knowth and Stonehenge, whose clear
astronomical nature is still disputed by scholars lacking knowledge.
Mainstream scholars alleging that those constructions are not clearly
astronomical have not done their homework, as these Pawnee drawings --
undeniably astronomical -- prove.
I have also -- speculatively -- interpreted the Pawnee Star Lodge
stellar system, which is based on a four "post hole" system, just as
Stonehenge above, for example. This interpretation is not as important
as the recognition that the Pawnee system and the Stonehenge and other
similar constructions represent the same ancient "astronomical
technology", and they do so, evidence-based, on the undisputed Pawnee
We have studied whether the astronomy of the Pawnee was more widespread
eras, not only in the United States but around the world.... It was.
We have applied the "Pawnee" hermetic astronomical principle, "as
above, so below" to megalithic sites around the world, for example,
to the Malta Temples,
and have achieved remarkable results.
We suggest that many megaliths and megalithic
sites served as boundary stones and landmarks
sighted (and sited) by astronomy.
Site Name: Stonehenge
United Kingdom, England
SU 1224 4218
SU 14 SW 4
the A344 off
the A303, 2 miles W of Amesbury
& 9 miles N of Salisbury
Heritage & National Trust Members
admitted free. Adults £5.90. Children £3.00.
£4.40. Family (2 adults + 3 children) £14.80.
Closed Dec. 24-26 & Jan. 1. Opens daily 9:30 a.m.
(9:00 June 1 - Aug. 31). Closes 4:00 p.m. (Oct. 16 - March 15), 6:00
p.m. (March 16 - May 31, Sep. 1 - Oct. 15), 7:00 p.m. (June 1 - Aug.
Heritage, The National Trust
The owner and
webmaster of Megaliths.net is Andis
B.A. University of
Nebraska; J.D. Stanford University Law School
Former Lecturer in Anglo-American Law, FFA, Trier Law School
Alumnus Associate of Paul, Weiss,
Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison, NYC
This page was last updated on January 13, 2013.
All materials presented on Megaliths.net are for information only.
No other relationship under the law is established to the user.
No warranties are made regarding the truth or accuracy of postings.
We disclaim any and all liability for the consequences of links
third party websites.
Legal Notice of Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials:
Copyrighted materials on Megaliths.net are posted under the "fair use"
as granted by Title
U.S.C. [United States Code] Section 107.
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